The tidewater terminus of the northwestern arm of Kongsbreen a decade ago joined Conwaybreen (see “Repeat Photographs”), but now is receding rapidly behind Ossian Sarsfjellet, to the extent that we predict this land mass will become an island within the next decade. The tidewater cliff is impressive and is actively producing small icebergs.
Relatively dirty slow-moving ice in the foreground contrasts with the clean heavily crevassed ice that is fast-flowing in the middle distance (JA).
Stagnant ice grounded on a narrow beach at sea-level reveals a series of thrusts that carry debris to the surface of the glacier (MH).
Numerous vertical fractures develop in the ice cliff, allowing towers of ice to collapse into the sea sporadically (JA).
Panoramic view, illustrating the relationship between Conwaybreen (left) and Kongsbreen NW, following rapid recession over the past decade. Note the prominent trimline on the far side of the bay, marking the Little Ice Age (Neoglacial) maximum (JA).
Towers of ice, ready to topple into the sea, dwarf the glaciologist (Juerg Alean) standing on the edge of the ice cliff (MH).
The brown colouration of the fjord waters is due to fresh sediment-laden meltwater emerging from the glacier below the waterline (JA).
Telephoto of the heavily crevassed middle reaches of Kongsbreen with the NW arm in the foreground and the SW arm starting at the right. One of the Tre Kroner in the background (JA).
Looking down on the heavily crevassed NW arm, with the debris-covered stagnant margin in the foreground (JA).
A series of lateral moraines, probably ice-cored, with kettle lake deposited by the NW arm of Kongsbreen during the Little Ice Age. In the background is the island of Blomstrandhalvøya, which as its name suggests was a peninsula when the glacier to the right was connected to it (MH).
Lateral moraine (centre) and trimline (left background) mark the Little Ice Age ice limits. The moraine dams the lake to the right. Reindeer grazing on lush tundra in the foreground (MH).
The curved shape of the lateral moraine is emphasised in this photo as it dams the lake to the right. The turquoise colouration is due to suspended fine sediment in the water (MH).
Reindeer strolling across the tundra with the glacier in the background (MH).
The calving cliff of Kongsbreen (NW) with bergy bits in front, seen from boat-level. Fresh calving from the cliff face are indicated by the stronger blue tones.
Close-up of the base of the calving cliff. Here, upwelling of fresh-water delivers nutrients into the fjord, attracting abundant bird life, including the Arctic terns seen here (JA).
Arctic terns resting on bergy bits in front of Kongsbreen NW arm (JA).
A section of the tidewater glacier front reflected in the nearly still waters if the fjord. Note the undercut base of the cliff, formed by waves as the glacier rests on the sea bottom (JA).
Ice towers (séracs) seen from boat-level with the undercut cliff prominent (JA).
Aerial view of the NW arm of Kongsbreen (right) with Ossian Sarsfjellet in front, Conwaybreen (centre) and the island group of Lovénøyane in the foreground (JA).
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