Phantom Lake, Finger Lake and Phantom Peak
Phantom Lake and its surroundings is one of the most striking landscape features of central Axel Heiberg. With a surface are of approximately 6km2 and a volume of about 0.5km3 (1961) it is by far the largest lake dammed by Thompson Glacier. Its maximum depth is around 200 metres, and decreases to less than 140 metres near Thompson Glacier. Therefore, its basin is a hanging valley to the Thompson Glacier trough which is around 500 metres thick where it dams Phantom Lake (cf. Maag, H. U., 1969: Ice dammed lakes and marginal glacial drainage on Axel Heiberg Island. McGill University, Axel Heiberg Island Research Report). When it drains only a minor part of its water volume flows, via a massive overflow channel, into Astro Lake.
Aerial view of Phantom Lake with countles icebergs and Phantom Peak. On the far right Phantom Glacier (from behind Phantom Peak) and Transit Glacier in the distance are flowing into the far end of the lake (July 2nd, 2008).
Western end of Phantom Lake where massive icebergs calve from Thompson Glacier. Five Finger Lake, which drains into Phantom Lake, is behind Circle Hill, the round hill just above the image centre (aerial photo, July 2nd, 2008).
Terrestrial photo (July 11th, 1976) from the western end of Bellevue Ridge, looking in the same direction as in the previous photo. Although it is 2 weeks earlier in the year, only little open water is visible between the icebergs.
Camping at Port Hendrigan almost 11 months later (June 23rd, 1977, after climbing Phantom Peak): despite the earlier date, the snowmelt has progressed further compared to July 11th, 1976.
Phantom Lake and Phnatom Peak as seen from the north end of Astro Ridge. The low, flat plateau right of centre is Port Hendrigan. Transit Glacier is in the far right background (June 1977).
Phantom Lake and Phantom Peak from Port Hendrigan, July 13th, 2008. The ice from Thomspon Glacier, flowing in from the left, is mostly floating and disintegrates into icebergs in the background.
Meltwater flowing off Thompson Glacier washes some dark cryoconite into the dark green water of the outflow channel (July 13th, 2008).
Complex patterns formed by meltwater channels, cryoconite deposits, foliation and intersecting faults along Phantom Lake's outflow channel (July 13th, 2008).
Water from Phantom Lake emerging from beneath a lobe of Thompson Glacier water runs towards the left, towards Astro Lake (July 13th, 2008).
The two small islands, one resembling a tortoise, the other a seal, are remnants of an ice-cored moraine (July 13th, 2008).
Aerial view of the western half of Phantom Lake. Several large icebergs resemble pieces of a puzzle, indicating gradual, slow calving from Thompson Glacier (July 2nd, 2008
Small, unnamed valley glacier descending from Bellvue Ridge into a hanging valley on the south side of Phantom Lake (June 24th, 1977; compare with following photos).
Snout of the unnamed valley glacier in the hanging valley. Open water along the shore separates us from the glacier's small outwash plaine (June 24th, 1977).
Identical photo as the previous one, but with prominent folding of the ice highlighted. The folding is due to longitudinal compression of the ice structures in the glacier tongue.
Anaglyph version of the previous image (red-blue or red-cyan glasses are needed to see the 3D-effect). The stereo view shows that the glacier is separated from the lake by a small outwash plaine.
The unnamed valley glacier is on the right in this aerial photo taken on July 2nd, 2008. Note the shoreline along in the foreground, which was formed when the lake level was higher.
Phantom Glacier descends from a steep valley on the east side of Phantom Peak and forms a prominent piedmont lobe in the Phantom Lake. Note the folded structures in the ice (August 8th, 1977).
Transit Glacier (right) and Phantom Glacier centre (aerial photo July 2nd, 2008). Phantom Lake (front left) is mostly covered by lake ice, but open water is visible along the shore and around the icebergs.
The front part of the Phantom Glacier's piedmont lobe is floating and desintegrates into large icebergs. Lateral moraines are visible were the glacier leaves the narrow valley.
The spectacular sedimentary rock series and sills of Phantom Peak from the east. Phantom Lake is on the left, Phantom Glacier with a prominent lateral moraine on the lower right.
View along Phantom Lake towards Thompson Glacier. The visible part of the lake is about 5 kilometres long (July 2nd, 2008).
Icebergs on Phantom Lake. The lake could be crossed on June 24th, 1977, before the melting of the lake ice.
Five Finger Lake is, like Phantom, full of large icebergs. Finger Glacier on the right and Zebra Mountain on the far left (view from Circle Hill on June 23th, 1977).
Aerial view of Phantom Lake, Circle Hill (centre), Five Finger Lake (right) and Finger Glacier (lower right; July 2nd, 2008).
Many large icebergs have calved from Thompson Glacier (at the back) into Five Finger Lake, whereas no calving takes place at the front of Finger Glacier (lower right), probably because it is grounded. The floes to the left of Finger glacier are lake ice (July 2nd, 2008).
View over Five Finger Lake towards the terminus of Thompson Glacier (far left). A relatively fresh, complex moraine on the righthand side of Finger Glacier's terminus indicates recession sometime in the recent past (July 2nd, 2008).
View from Phantom Peak over the tongue of Thompson Glacier towards the Expedition River valley and Bastion Ridge. On the far right are Wolf Mountain and Black Crown Peak (June 24th, 1977).
Zebra Mountain (left) was a remarkable sight on that memorable, calm day, when we reached the summit of Phantom Peak and where treated to a great ski run down the length of Finger Glacier (June 24th, 1977).
|Photos Jürg Alean|