Turkey

Pamukkale

Pamukkale ("Cotton Castle" in Turkish) is the modern name of the ancient Greek city of Hierapolis. It was built near hot springs which, over the centuries, have partially covered the ruins in natural terraces. The water contains large amounts of minerals, in particular hydrogen carbonate and calcium. As the water cools calcium carbonate gets precipitated and forms thick white layers of so-called travertine. Mineral deposition is not uniform due to irregular water flow.

Pamukkale
Some terraces are filled with water while others are dry.
Pamukkale
The water is cascading here from one pool to the next.
Pamukkale
View from the terraces towards the village of Pamukkale.
Pamukkale
The travertine terraces and pools in the early morning light.
Pamukkale
Colourful thermophile (heat tolerant) algae in the hot springs.
Pamukkale
Variegated stripes of algae show the water flow.
Pamukkale
The necropolis of Hierapolis has been almost entirely buried by travertine.
Pamukkale
Reflection of the deep blue sky in the calm water of the pools at sunset.
Pamukkale
Waterless terraces on the right no longer cover dark material caused by pollution.
Pamukkale
Travertine stalactites hanging on the outside of a particularly high terrace.
Pamukkale
Below some stalactites (hanging) some smaller stalagmites (standing up) are forming.
Pamukkale
Small wavelets in the water appear petrified in the travertine's surface.
Pamukkale
The other face of the coin: Hotels use (abuse?!) both antique ruins and hot mineral springs.
Pamukkale
Only here one can swim among original Greek columns and capitels.
Pamukkale
Pamukkale on a Sunday: not nearly enough pools for everybody...
Pamukkale
The hot water is also used in the town of Pamukkale to heat houses.